Self-Assessment Modules

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Chordoma Occurs in Young Children with Tuberous Sclerosis

It is generally not recognized that chordomas can be seen in a tumor predisposition syndrome; although rare, pediatric chordomas may be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and this article and SAM highlight this association.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Explain the histological features and immunophenotype, including utility of brachyury IHC, for chordoma.
  2. Recognize that occasionally, poorly differentiated pediatric chordomas can show loss of nuclear INI1.
  3. Outline the potential association between pediatric chordoma and tuberous sclerosis complex.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)    
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Evaluating the Patterns of Aging-Related Tau Astrogliopathy Unravels Novel Insights Into Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientist in the field of neuropathology and neurology who are interested in the diagnosis, management and research of dementia.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Explain the morphology and the distribution of different ARTAG types.
  2. Describe the correlation of ARTAG with clinicopathological and genetic variables.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)     
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Clinical, Imaging, Histopathological and Molecular Characterization of Anaplastic Ganglioglioma

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in the research and prognosis of WHO grade III anaplastic ganglioglioma, as well as the diagnosis and/or treatment of patients with cancerous brain tumors.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Describe clinical, imaging and histopathological features of anaplastic ganglioglioma in adult and pediatric cases.
  2. Determine which molecular features can be seen in anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  3. Determine which differential diagnosis to consider and the histopathological criteria needed to distinguish other entities from anaplastic ganglioglioma.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)    
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2017 Presidential Symposium

This is the post-test component of the Presidential Symposium self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 2.25 hours of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)   
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2017 Special Course

This is the post-test component of the Special Course self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 6.75 hours of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)    
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2017 Diagnostic Slide Session

This is the post-test component of the Diagnostic Slide Session self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 3 hours of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3) 
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2017 DeArmond Lecture

This is the post-test component of the DeArmond Lecture self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 1 hour of SAM Credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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2017 Korey Lecture

This is the post-test component of the Korey Lecture self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 1 hour of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3) 
 Buy ($25.00)

2017 Parisi Lecture

This is the post-test component of the Parisi Lecture self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 1 hour of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3) 
 Buy ($25.00)

2017 Moore Lecture

This is the post-test component of the Moore Lecture self-assessment module (SAM) held at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists (AANP) in Orange County, CA. This course was certified by AANP for 1 hour of SAM Credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3) 
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Endothelial Cell Hypertrophy and Microvascular Proliferation in Meningiomas Are Correlated with Higher Histological Grade and Shorter Progression-Free Survival

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of practicing neuropathologists and surgical pathologists. 

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:dentify the histologic differences of endothelial cell hypertrophy(ECH), microvascular proliferation (MVP), and microvascular density (MVD).
  1. Identify the histologic differences of endothelial cell hypertrophy(ECH), microvascular proliferation (MVP), and microvascular density (MVD).
  2. Compare prognostic value of WHO grading of meningiomas with proposed histologic features (ECH, MVD, MVP).
  3. Assess the effectiveness of the discussed histologic features of angiogenesis (ECH, MVD, MVP) in regards to survival endpoints and inter-observer reproducibility.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

  Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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Hippocampal Formation Maldevelopment and Sudden Unexpected Death across the Pediatric Age Spectrum

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in pediatric diseases of the central nervous system.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Describe sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC).
  2. Articulate the age cut off between SIDS and SUDC.
  3. Explain the clinicopathologic features of hippocampal formation maldevelopment in sudden unexpected death in different pediatric ages.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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 Argyrophilic Grain Disease: Demographics, Clinical, and Neuropathological Features from a Large Autopsy Study

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in the study of neurodegenerative diseases.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:
  1. State the demographics of AGD.
  2. Recognize the clinical features of AGD.
  3. Apply the neuropathological diagnostic criteria of AGD.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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"New Old Pathologies": AD, PART, and Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis (CARTS)

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in the study of neurodegenerative diseases.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:
  1. Describe and compare clinical and pathologic characteristics of Alzheimer Disease, primary age-related tauopathy, and hippocampal sclerosis of aging/cerebral age-related TDP-43 and sclerosis.
  2. Recognize hippocampal sclerosis of aging as a mimic of Alzheimer Disease common in older individuals with cognitive impairment.
  3. List some genetic risk factors that contribute to TDP-43 pathology and hippocampal sclerosis.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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Immunohistochemistry to Identify Molecular Genetic Alternations in CNS Tumors  

There is a remarkable increase in our understanding of neuro-oncology in the last few years. More and more mutant-specific antibodies are now available to detect oncogenic genetic changes in brain tumors, which can help refine diagnosis, establish prognosis, and guide therapeutic approaches. However, these affordable and powerful means are not being fully taken advantage of. Therefore, neuropathologists need to better understand the diagnostic use of immunohistochemical surrogates for signature molecular genetic alterations in brain tumors. This 1-hour SAM aims to present the most critical components of this diverse group of disorders.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:
  1. Recognize the significance of immunohistochemical surrogates for signature molecular genetic alterations on gliomas.
  2. Identify the appropriate diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry for identifying common molecular alterations such as IDH1/2, TP53, ATRX, histone, BRAF, CIC and FUBP1 mutations, EGFR status and MGMT promoter methylation in adult and pediatric gliomas.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
 Buy ($25.00)

Skeletal Muscle Pathology in X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy: Review with Cross-Species Comparisons 

Many Neuropathologists are not familiar with the pathologic features of X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), nor are they familiar with the animal models being used to investigate potential therapeutics. Correct diagnosis of XLMTM is important in the practice of Neuropathologists who review muscle biopsies. It is also important for Neuropathologists to be aware of advances in research in XLMTM, particularly in relation to animal models being used to study potential therapeutics. Therefore, Neuropathologists need tools and strategies to better understand correct diagnosis and to appreciate the ongoing research on XLMTM.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:
  1. Summarize the distinctive pathological features of X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) in humans.
  2. Discuss the function of myotubularin in human muscle.
  3. Compare and contrast the features of available animal models in the study of XLMTM.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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Prognostic and Therapeutic Markers in Chordomas: A Study of 287 Tumors 

Chordomas are locally aggressive, highly recurrent, chemoresistant tumors with no assigned WHO grade.  Due to the rarity of this tumor type, no definitive criteria exist for prognostic stratification. Histopathologic  correlations for prognostication and biomarkers to guide therapeutic approach are beneficial for optimized patient management. Therefore, Neuropathologists need tools and guidelines to prognostically stratify chordomas.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Assess prognostic stratification based on proposed histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods as proposed by the paper.
  2. Identify molecular characteristics of chordomas.
  3. Discuss clinical and histological features of primary versus recurrent chordomas.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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FGFR1 Mutations in Rosette-forming Glioneuronal Tumors of the Fourth Ventricle 

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientist in the field of neuropathology and surgical pathology involved in the diagnosis and/or treatment of patients with brain tumors.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Compare molecular genetic characteristics of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors (RGNT) and pilocytic astrocytomas.
  2. Estimate the frequency of FGFR1 mutations in RGNT as suggested by the paper.
  3. Discuss clinical and histological correlations of FGFR1 mutations in RGNT.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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CDKN2A Loss Is Associated With Shortened Overall Survival in Lower-Grade (World Health Organization Grades II-III) Astrocytomas 

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in the research and prognosis of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas, as well as the diagnosis and/or treatment of patients with cancerous brain tumors.

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Illustrate the basic mechanism of CDKN2A gene.
  2. Express the significance of CDKN2A in astrocytic tumors and oligodendroglial tumors.
  3. Discuss significance of CDKN2A mutations and its relation with other mutations including IDH1, IDH2, ATRX, and p53 from the perspective of patient survival. 

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
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Leigh Syndrome: Neuropathology and Pathogensesis 

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of physicians and scientists in the field of neuropathology and neurology involved in the research, diagnosis, and prognosis of metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system. 

After completing this activity, participants should be better able to:

  1. Explain clinical and radiologic correlations in Leigh syndrome.
  2. Summarize the molecular genetic characteristics of Leigh Syndrome. 
  3. Discuss application of the Ndufs4 mouse animal model and hypoxia model findings to clinical practice.

This SAM is worth 1 CME credit.

 Available
(attempts allowed: 3)
Buy ($25.00)